Tag Archives: Jesus

Baby Jesus born in a cave

CHRISTMAS: KING HEROD VS. BABY JESUS?

Jesus was born during the reign of King Herod the Great, in the shadow of Herod’s awe-inspiring fortresses, palaces, aqueducts, hippodromes, gymnasiums, and temples. The Gospel of Luke tells us Joseph and Mary went to Bethlehem because Joseph “was of the house and line of David. He went there to register with Mary, who was pledged to be married to him and was expecting a child. While they were there, the time came for the baby to be born, and she gave birth to her firstborn, a son, and wrapped him in swaddling cloths and laid him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn.” (Luke 2:4-7)

Bethlehem is five-miles from Jerusalem, where Herod the Great had built an opulent new palace; and Bethlehem virtually rests in the shadow of Herod’s human-made mountain, a massive palace/fortress called the Herodeion. King Herod also built ornate and massive palaces at: Masada, Caesarea Maritima, Jericho, Hyrcania, Alexandrion, and Machaeros.

Herod was a Roman citizen (Julius Caesar had conferred citizenship on Herod’s father, Antipater I) and was officially named “King of Israel” by the Roman Senate. Herod became the richest King of Israel since Solomon, the size of his kingdom rivaling Solomon’s. And Herod the Great was friends and allies with the most powerful people of his day: Julius Caesar, Mark Antony, Cassius, Augustus Caesar, even Cleopatra.

During his reign, Herod built grandiose Greco-Roman cities, including his new capital, Caesarea Maritima. Herod’s crowning engineering feat, at Caesarea, was the construction of the largest human-made harbor, built in the open sea using concrete stronger and superior to anything in use today.

King Herod’s greatest architectural achievement was Jerusalem’s Temple, built in glistening Hellenistic style. The Temple’s platform was the size of twenty football fields, constructed from massive stones weighing as much as one-hundred-tons each. Four Roman Coliseums could be placed on the Temple’s platform, with room to spare.

King Herod’s building projects were not limited to Israel. He constructed gymnasiums, theaters, aqueducts, entire streets, and pagan temples as far north as Antioch, and as far west as Greece. When the Emperor Augustus proposed a large city on Greece’s western coast, Nicopolis, Herod appears to have erected most of the city’s public buildings. During the peak period of King Herod’s reign, he built more monumental projects than the rest of the Roman Empire combined.

Herod the Great even sponsored and endowed the Olympic Games, presiding as president (agonothetes) in 12 BC, and was named president of the Olympics for life.

Contrast Herod to Jesus. The King of Kings was born in a stable, most likely a cave. Caves scattered around Bethlehem and its region were used as stables and sheep pens, to protect the herds at night. The Messiah, God in human flesh, is born in a cave, surrounded by sheep; while the earthly king, Herod, had his choice of opulent palaces, surrounded by luxury and riches.

Herod was friends with the most powerful Romans, receiving accolades and gifts. But Jesus’ birth was announced only to lowly, “shepherds in the area, sleeping in the fields nearby, keeping watch over their flocks at night…the angel said to them, ‘Do not be afraid. Look, for I have come to announce good news that will bring great joy to all the people. Today a savior has been born to you, in the City of David, who is Messiah, the Lord. And this is the sign for you: You will find a baby wrapped in swaddling cloths and laying in a manger.’” (Luke 2:8-12)

Despite his power and riches, Herod was unhappy and paranoid, afraid someone may take away his crown. Herod executed several of his own sons, and one of his wives, fearing they were plotting to take his throne. He was even afraid of a baby born in a manger. The Gospel of Matthew tells us that after Herod heard of Jesus’ birth, he had all the young babies of Bethlehem killed, fearing the baby Messiah may threaten his reign. (Matthew 2:1-12)

God is the opposite of Herod. Being the King of everything, God freely gave up power and glory to become a human baby. God willingly sacrificed for the poor and lowly, for those caught in the grips of evil and oppression – for you and me. Good Friday is not the only example of Jesus’ sacrifice for us. Christmas is also about sacrifice, when God came to live on earth as a human-being, to dwell with us in our humble circumstances.

The contrast between King Herod and King Jesus reveals much. Those who worship earthly power and riches are the ones who are the truly impoverished, unable to find peace or happiness, no matter how much fame, money or power they may possess. But God, the creator of all things, willingly gave up everything for the sake of those in need. God came to bring us the gift of peace and joy. This is the story of Christmas.

 

Rev. Dr. Daniel Molyneux

Trinity Lutheran Church

2018 © Daniel R. Molyneux

israel cave
A cave in Israel
Indie Book Awards. Christian Fiction, Novel, Daniel Molyneux Dan Molyneux, Judas Son of Simon, Moriah Books,

JUDAS SON OF SIMON WINS PRIZE FOR BEST CHRISTIAN FICTION

New Orleans – The Independent Book Publishing Professionals Group (IBPPG) has named the best indie books of 2018. The Next Generation Indie Book Awards are the world’s largest not-for-profit book awards program for independent publishers.

The winners and finalists were honored June 22 at Hotel Monteleone in New Orleans, coinciding with the American Library Association Annual Conference. The awards are judged by leaders of the indie book publishing industry, including many with long careers at major publishing houses. Their love of a great read and experience in the publishing arena identify books deserving a wider audience.

Catherine Goulet, Co-Chair of the 2018 awards proudly said, “Our program has become known as the Sundance of the book publishing world.” Independent book publishing companies are independent of the major conglomerates dominating the book publishing industry. Indies include: small presses, larger independent publishers, university presses, e-book publishers, and self-published authors.

Daniel Molyneux’s historical novel, JUDAS SON OF SIMON (Moriah books) was chosen as the winner of the Christian Fiction category.

It and other works by Molyneux are available from Baker & Taylor, Cokesbury, Amazon, Barnes & Noble, christianbook.com and through your local independent bookseller.

https://www.goodreads.com/author/show/5881738.Daniel_Molyneux

Indie Book Awards. Christian Fiction, Novel, Daniel Molyneux Dan Molyneux, Judas Son of Simon, Moriah Books,
JUDAS SON OF SIMON, by Daniel Molyneux, Winner 2018 Indie Book Awards for Christian Fiction.

KIRKUS REVIEW – Judas Son of Simon, by Daniel Molyneux

“The story is most powerful when incorporating details of the time period. Even readers familiar with Judas’ life may not grasp the finer differences among the Sadducees, Pharisees, and Essenes or the threat of revolution apparent at the time. Likewise, information about the intersection of Roman and local powers provides insight into how a figure like Jesus, so seemingly innocuous to the mighty Roman Empire (particularly when compared with the violent Zealots), could be put to death in such a grisly way. Period particulars augment this multilayered portrayal of Judas.”

https://www.kirkusreviews.com/book-reviews/daniel-molyneux/judas-son-simon/

judas-book-cover
Judas Son of Simon, by Daniel Molyneux

San Francisco Review of Books – Judas Son of Simon

San Francisco Review of Books
“As in Daniel’s other novels Judas Son of Simon is history shared and the early stages of Christianity explored in a manner that makes them irresistibly fascinating…Daniel’s gift for storytelling is fully unleashed here as he re-writes stories we have all learned and in doing so makes them so very much more real and tenable. Another very fine book from this young and sophisticated religious historian.”

http://www.sanfranciscoreviewofbooks.com/2017/10/book-review-judas-son-of-simon-by.html

judas-book-cover
Judas Son of Simon,
by Daniel Molyneux

Jesus’ Tomb

This photo is of a first-century Judean tomb, like the one Jesus would have been placedtomb2 in. Notice how low the entrance is, little more than three-feet high; and the large stone to block the entrance. (Part of the outside wall to the tomb has collapsed.)

Matthew 27 says, Joseph (of Arimathea) took the body (Jesus’) and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn in the rock. He then rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb and went away.

If an Israelite family could afford a family tomb, it was a cave hewn out of the rock. A rock bench would be there on which the body was placed. And the body would be wrapped in a shroud, but was otherwise uncovered.

Tombs were visited and watched for three days by family members and friends. On the third day after death, the body was examined.

At this point, the body would be treated by the women of the family with oils and perfumes.

After visiting the tomb on the third day the body was then left for a year, by which time it had decomposed. The bones were then collected and placed in an ossuary, a ‘bone box’.

One of the great archeological finds of recent times was discovery of Caiaphas’ tomb. It was accidently found by a construction workers almost 30 years ago.

Inside the tomb archeologists found several ossuaries (bone boxes). On one of the ossuaries was written in Aramaic, “Caiaphas,” and on another was written, “Joseph Bar Caiaphas.”

We know from the ancient Jewish/Roman historian, Flavius Josephus, that Joseph Bar Caiaphas is the Caiaphas mentioned in the New Testament as the high priest who presided over Jesus’ trial and death.

Inside the ornate bone box marked “Joseph Bar Caiaphas” the bones of a sixty-year-old male and several other family members were placed.

On this day after Good Friday, we have Caiaphas’ bones who rotted inside his tomb; but for Jesus, we have the empty tomb of Easter.

Date of Jesus’ Death

What day and year was Jesus crucified? The following is part of Appendix 1 of my book, Judas Son of Simon.

Luke 3:1-2 provides numerous historical references to the religious and political leaders during John’s and Jesus’ ministries. It says, “in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesars’ reign, when Pontius Pilate was ruler of Judea, Herod (Antipas Bar-Herod) was Tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip (Philip Bar-Herod) Tetrarch of Iturea…while Annas and Caiaphas were high priests, the word of God came to John.”

The fifteenth year of Tiberius’ reign – circa 28AD

Pontius Pilate – Prefect of Judea, 26-36AD

Antipas Bar-Herod – Tetrarch of Galilee/Perea 4BC-39AD

Philip Bar-Herod – Tetrarch of Iturea, 4BC-34AD

Joseph Bar-Caiaphas – High Priest, 18-36AD

Annas Bar-Seth – High Priest, 6-15AD. Annas continued as the power behind succeeding High Priests for decades. Caiaphas was his son-in-law, and five of Annas’ sons served as High Priest.

So, from Luke 3 we know that John’s and Jesus’ ministries took place between 26 and 34AD.

Luke 3:23 says, “Jesus was about 30-years old when he began his ministry.” – circa 26-28AD.

John 2:20 says, “It has taken us 46-years to build this temple.” Herod began to rebuild the Temple circa 18-19BC. Therefore, John 2:20 takes place circa 28AD

The Gospel of John records three Passovers during Jesus’ ministry. John the Baptizer and Jesus both appear to have begun their ministries circa 27-28AD. Jesus’ baptism by John likely took place in January of 28AD.

During Pontius Pilate’s term of office as Prefect of Judea, there were only two years when Passover fell on a Sabbath – the years 30 and 32AD. So, Jesus’ crucifixion appears to have occurred on one of these two dates. Given the overall timeline, it is most likely that Jesus was crucified on April 7, 30AD.

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Mona Lisa of Galilee

This is “The Mona Lisa of Galilee” a 2000-year old floor mosaic, called this because of the artist’s skill in capturing the subject’s beauty. It is located in Sepphoris. During Jesus’ childhood, Sepphoris was Galilee’s capital and largest city. Many mistakenly think Jesus grew up in a tiny rural village. But Nazareth was a suburb or Sepphoris, only three miles away. During Jesus’ childhood, Sepphoris was undergoing a tremendous building project. This is likely one of the main reasons Joseph and Mary moved their family to area. Sepphoris had plenty of employment for Joseph. Joseph and Jesus were not “carpenters,” as has been mistranslated. The correct translation is “builder.” Even the word “mason” would be a more accurate than “carpenter.” The Greek word used in the New Testament for Joseph and Jesus is “tekton”. From it we get our English words “technician” and “architect (meaning head builder)”. There is little wood in Israel, and homes are not built from wood. In Galilee, homes and other buildings were built of stone, such as black basalt. Herod Antipas rebuilt Galilee’s capital, Sepphoris, in Greco-Roman style. It is likely Joseph, and perhaps even Jesus, worked as builders in Sepphoris. Although I have little evidence to back it up, I wonder if Joseph, Jesus, and family, could have specialized in the construction of synagogues. We also have indications of Jesus’ familiarity with theatre in Sepphoris, because he frequently used the Greek word “hypokrites” meaning actor. In Greco-Roman theatre, the actors wore masks, hiding their faces. They were literally two-faced. So, when Jesus called the Pharisees hypocrites, he was calling them actors, hiding their true selves behind a false façade.Mona LIsa (2)